英國租屋 Renting a property in UK


在人生路不熟的國家為自己和家人尋找合適的住所可能會感到壓力很大。本文將為你提供指導和一些在英國的租屋費用、流程及各種事項。


我們總是建議首次入境英國的朋友在 Airbnb 暫住一至兩個月,同時實地考察不同地區及尋找合適的房子來租。在購買房屋之前先租屋將會給你有更大的靈活性來探索英國的不同地區。


如果你真的需要買屋然後才到英國,請參考 “英國買屋流程” <-- coming soon


Finding the right accommodation for yourself and your family can be stressful, especially in an unfamiliar country. This article will give you a guidance and some examples of the rental procedures in the UK.


We always suggest to first arrivals to stay at Airbnb for 1/2 months while visiting different areas and finding a suitable accommodation to rent. Renting a property before buying will give you greater flexibility to explore different areas of the UK.




租客款項

Tenant's Fees


從2019年6月開始,英國禁止地產經紀向租客亂收不合理的費用!地產經紀向你收取 agent 費是違法的。https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/tenant-fees-act


房東或地產經紀只可向新租客收取的款項是:

  • 租金

  • 可退還的按金,每年租金少於 £50,000 時,房東不可以收超過 5 星期租金的按金;如果每年租金多於 £50,000 時,按金不可收超過 6 星期的租金

  • 可退還的訂金(用於保留房屋),訂金不可收超過 1星期的租金

  • 如租客提前終止租約相關的費用

  • 更改、轉讓或更新租約的付款不可收超過 £50

  • 水電煤、互聯網、TV licence 和市政稅費用

  • 根據租約協議的要求,延遲交租和遺失鎖匙或保安系統是需要費用


From June 2019, there is a ban on letting agent fees for tenants in the UK! It is illegal for a letting agent to charge you fees when you rent an accommodation. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/tenant-fees-act


The only payments that landlords or letting agents can charge to new tenants are:

  • Rent

  • A refundable tenancy deposit capped at no more than 5 weeks’ rent where the total annual rent is less than £50,000, or 6 weeks’ rent where the total annual rent is £50,000 or above

  • A refundable holding deposit (to reserve a property) capped at no more than 1 week’s rent

  • Payment associated with early termination of the tenancy, when requested by the tenant

  • Payment capped at £50 for the variation, assignment or novation of a tenancy

  • Payments in respect of utilities, communication services, TV licence and Council Tax

  • A default fee for late payment of rent and replacement of a lost key/ security device giving access to the housing, where required under a tenancy agreement



英格蘭 England: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/how-to-rent/how-to-rent-the-checklist-for-renting-in-england


蘇格蘭 Scotland: https://www.mygov.scot/rent-private-landlord/


威爾斯 Wales: https://gov.wales/renting-home-private-landlord-or-letting-agent-guidance-tenants


北愛爾蘭 Northern Ireland: https://www.nidirect.gov.uk/articles/private-rent-and-tenancies



 

租屋的過程

The process of renting



第一步

  • 設定預算,以確保你有足夠的錢來支付水電煤、互聯網和市政稅,以及其他生活費用。請記住入夥前需要支付訂金、按金及頭一個月的租金或半年租金。

  • 選擇幾個區域並在每個區中進行研究: 列出優點及缺點,以幫助縮細選擇宜居的範圍


大多數地產會通過以下網站列出租盤


https://www.rightmove.co.uk/ - Largest property website

https://www.zoopla.co.uk/ - Second largest

https://www.onthemarket.com/

https://www.spareroom.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.idealflatmate.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.roomgo.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.openrent.co.uk/

https://www.findahood.com/ - Finding the perfect neighbourhood for your family

https://www.gumtree.com/

https://www.movebubble.com/


可以使用這些網站搜尋租盤/房,在網頁上填寫你的要求 例如價錢、 臥室數量、房屋類型 (公寓、排屋、半獨立或獨立屋) 等等。


有些租盤配有家私,價格將比沒有家私的租盤貴一點,但對於新來者來說是很方便。



Step 1

  • Set your budget to ensure you have enough money left over for water, gas, electricity and council bills, and other living expenses. Remember to take into account that, you will need to pay an upfront deposit as well as the refundable holding deposit.

  • Choose few areas and do research in each: list out pros and cons to help narrow your search

Most letting agents would list their properties on the websites below:


https://www.rightmove.co.uk/ - Largest property website

https://www.zoopla.co.uk/ - Second largest

https://www.spareroom.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.idealflatmate.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.roomgo.co.uk/ - House sharing

https://www.openrent.co.uk/

https://www.findahood.com/ - Finding the perfect neighbourhood for your family

https://www.gumtree.com/

https://www.movebubble.com/


You can use these websites to search for your accommodation. Choose the area and filter your budget, number of bedrooms, type of houses: flat, terraced, semi-detached, or detached house.


Some properties are furnished and will cost slightly more than unfurnished, but it is convenient for new arrivals.



 

第2步


安排睇租盤 :

  • 你可以打電話或 send email 安排睇屋。

  • 除了睇屋,還應該了解附近環境,查看是否適合你的家庭。

  • 如果是共享房屋,需要了解一下其他租客的背景。


向房東或地產查詢的問題:

  • 多少租金以及如何支付?

  • 房租包括其他 bills? 例如 水電煤、互聯網和市政稅

  • 可以租幾耐?

  • 需不需要支付任何仲介費用?

  • 如何保護你的按金及訂金?

  • 詢問該物業是由房東還是地產管理?

  • 同意租屋之前,請先詢問任何條件。 例如,你可能不允許吸煙或養寵物

查看能源節省證書 (EPC): 會告訴你該物業的能源效率。等級 A 是最慳電的,而G是最低級。


查詢同意租屋時需要出示什麼文件!請參閱第四步



Step 2


Arrange viewings:

  • You can either call or email to arrange all house viewings.

  • Apart from viewing the house, you should also walk around the neighbourhood to see if it is suitable for your family.

  • If it is a house-share, meet all the people you’ll be moving in with.


Questions to ask your landlord or letting agent:

  • How much rent you’ll have to pay and how it should be paid?

  • Does your rent includes any bills?

  • How long you can rent for?

  • Check if you need to pay any fees if you rent from a letting agent.

  • How your tenancy deposit will be protected?

  • Ask whether the property will be managed by the landlord or the letting agent

  • Ask about any conditions before you agree to take a property. For example, you might not allowed to smoke or have pets.


Check the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC): this will tell you how energy efficient the property is. The rating A is the most energy efficient and G is the least.


Ask what documents you will need to show when agree to rent! -- Please see Step 4



 

第三步


https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-privately/private-renting/how-much-it-costs-to-rent/


在報價之前,你可以與房東或地產協商租金價格。你可以討價還價,例如 租期長短、租金中包括電費 等等。確保白紙黑字為證。同意租金價格後,你需要存入一筆訂金,用於保留房屋。訂金通常相當於一個星期的租金,地產會提交給房東。你的訂金將從總租金中扣除。


在支付訂金前,確保你不會改變主意,因為如改變主意通常不會退還這筆錢。如果房東或地產決定不繼續租給你,請確保你的訂金可退還。


支付訂金後,你有15天的時間提供所有必需的文件(第4步)並簽署租賃協議。你可要求延期,但請確保白紙黑字為證。


房東或地產不會退還訂金,如果你:

  • 決定不入住,或

  • 在15天內沒有給他們提供正確的資料,或

  • 向他們提供虛假或誤導性資料

所以在支付訂金前,請確保你擁有所有正確的文件。




Step 3


https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-privately/private-renting/how-much-it-costs-to-rent/


Before making an offer, you could negotiate the rental price with your landlord or letting agent. You can ask for cheaper rent or the length of your tenancy and other terms, e.g. include any bills in the rent. Make sure to get what you agree in writing for future reference.

After agreeing with that offer, you will need to place a holding deposit.


The holding deposit usually equivalent to one week rent and letting agent will submit your offer to the landlord. Your holding deposit will be deducted from the final amount due when you move into the property.


Don’t pay it or sign anything unless you’re sure you want the property – you usually won’t get the money back if you change your mind. Make sure your holding deposit is refundable if the landlord or letting agent decides not to go ahead.


After you’ve paid the holding deposit you have 15 days provide any required documents (step 4) and to sign a tenancy agreement. You can ask for an extension, but please make sure it is written down for future reference.



They won’t refund your holding deposit if you:

  • decide not to move in, or

  • decide to move in but didn’t give them the right information within 15 days, or

  • give them false or misleading information.

Please make sure you have all the correct documents before placing your holding deposit.



 

第四步


房東接受你的報價後,他們將對你進行信用檢查 (credit check) 和 reference 檢查。

https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-privately/private-renting/checks-your-landlord-or-letting-agent-will-make/


所需文件

(這是為了查看你是否具有“出租權”)

  • 你的身份:護照或英國駕駛執照

  • 移民身份:BNO簽證 或 Leave Outside the Rules (LOTR)

Reference Check

  • 你的工作(如果有):糧單

  • 銀行月結單(為安全起見,請掩蓋銀行帳號)

  • 以前的地址證明

  • 等等

如果你是第一次在英國租屋並沒有固定收入,那麼房東或地產還可為你提供其他選擇。例如,他們可能要求你全額支付 6個月或12個月的租金,或提供擔保人。


擔保人的職責是在你不能負擔租金時為你承擔一切費用,他必須是受僱人,並且是英國居民,其收入足夠支付你的租金。


你還可以要求提供 ‘Character reference’,即雇主或熟識你的人來信以證明你是可靠的。


Reference: https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-a-home/using-a-guarantor/




Step 4


After the landlord has accepted your offer, they will run a credit check and reference check on you.

https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-privately/private-renting/checks-your-landlord-or-letting-agent-will-make/


Required Documents

(This is to see if you have the ‘right to rent’)

  • Your identity: passport or UK driving licence

  • Immigration status: BNO visa or LOTR

Reference checks

( This is to see if you can afford the property and will be a good tenant )

  • Your employment (if any): payslip

  • Bank statement (cover your account numbers for security)

  • Proof of your previous address

If it is your first time renting an accommodation in the UK and does not have regular income, there are still other options the agent or landlord can offer. They could ask you to pay the rent for full, 6 months or 12months up front, or provide a guarantor.


A guarantor is the person who will agree to take joint responsibility for the rent if you fails to do so. Your guarantor has to be employed and a UK resident with sufficient earnings to cover your rental.


You could also ask for a 'character reference' - a letter from an employer or someone who knows you well, to show that you're reliable.


Reference: https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/housing/renting-a-home/using-a-guarantor/




 

第五步


提供所有正確的文件後,你需要簽署租約協議:

https://www.gov.uk/private-renting-tenancy-agreements/what-should-be-in-a-tenancy-agreement

  • 所有參與人員的名字

  • 租金價格和付款方式

  • 有關如何以及何時審查租金

  • 按金總額及保護方式

  • 何時可以全部或部分預扣按金的詳細資料

  • 物業地址

  • 租約的開始和結束日期

  • 任何租客或房東的義務

  • 你需要負責的帳單


還可包含以下信息:

  • 租約是否可以提早終止,以及如何終止

  • 負責小維修的人(除了房東法律上應負責的)

  • 租約是否可以轉讓給其他人或是可否寄宿人

  • 租約結束後是否需要專業清潔 <- 這個非常重要



Step 5


After providing all the correct documents, you’ll need to sign a tenancy agreement:

https://www.gov.uk/private-renting-tenancy-agreements/what-should-be-in-a-tenancy-agreement


  • the names of all people involved

  • the rental price and how it’s paid

  • information on how and when the rent will be reviewed

  • the deposit amount and how it will be protected

  • details of when the deposit can be fully or partly withheld

  • the property address

  • the start and end date of the tenancy

  • any tenant or landlord obligations

  • an outline of bills you’re responsible for


It can also include information on:

  • whether the tenancy can be ended early and how this can be done

  • who’s responsible for minor repairs (other than those that the landlord is legally responsible for)

  • whether the property can be let to someone else (sublet) or have lodger

  • whether professional clean will required after your tenancy <- this is very important



 

第六步


入住之前:

  • 將收取按金 (deposit) 和第一筆租金

  • 所有按金必須註冊在政府批准的保護計劃內,租約結束時租戶可對按金的任何扣除提出異議。

  • 房東將為你提供一份‘入住檢查’清單 ( inventory check list ) ,文件內描述房屋狀況以及房東留下的任何家私。當你不再租時,房東將使用此清單以確保房屋狀況與你首次入住時相同,並且任何損壞/遺失都將從你的按金中扣除。

  • 該 inventory 清單還可包含水、電和燃氣錶的度數,你還應該仔細檢查所有度數是否正確。

簽‘入住檢查 ’文件前,請仔細檢查房屋是否與報告紀錄的內容相符。你可以修改任何不正確的紀錄內容。


最好拍照任何沒有在清單中的裂縫、痕跡或划痕,和報告給房東或地產。


https://england.shelter.org.uk/housing_advice/private_renting/how_to_check_and_agree_an_inventory



Step 6


Before moving in:


  • A security deposit and the first rental payment will be taken.

  • All deposits must be registered under a government approved protection scheme, tenants can dispute any deductions from their deposit.

  • Your landlord will provide an inventory for you to check. It is a document describes the condition of the property and any furniture the landlord left behind. This inventory will be used when you leave the property to ensure the condition is the same as you first moved in and any damages/missing will be deducted from your deposit.

  • The inventory may also contain a record of meter readings.


Make sure you check your inventory before you sign it! You can amend the inventory to record anything that’s incorrect.


Take photos of any cracks, marks or scratches that aren’t recorded in the inventory and report back to landlord or letting agent.


https://england.shelter.org.uk/housing_advice/private_renting/how_to_check_and_agree_an_inventory



 

入住後的任何維修

Any repairs after you moved in


房東負責大部分維修:

  • 電線

  • 煤氣管和 boilers

  • 暖氣和熱水

  • 煙通和通風系統

  • 瓷盆、浴室、洗手間、管道和排水道

  • 公共區域,包括入口大廳和樓梯

  • 建築物的結構和外部,包括牆壁、樓梯和欄杆、屋頂、外門和窗戶


房東還必須處理:

  • 任何潮濕和發霉的問題

  • 物業內的任何老鼠和其他害蟲

  • 每年檢查燃氣

  • 安裝煙霧警報和一氧化碳警報器



Landlords are responsible for most repairs:

  • electrical wiring

  • gas pipes and boilers

  • heating and hot water

  • chimneys and ventilation

  • sinks, baths, toilets, pipes and drains

  • common areas including entrance halls and stairways

  • the structure and exterior of the building, including walls, stairs and bannisters, roof, external doors and windows

Your landlord must also deal with :

  • any damp and mould issues,

  • any rats, mice and other pests inside the property

  • gas safety check every year

  • install smoke alarms and carbon monoxide alarms

https://england.shelter.org.uk/housing_advice/repairs/landlord_and_tenant_responsibilities_for_repairs